When I was Your Man

Tuesday, April 16, 2013

Materi Rangkuman Bahan Ajar Curriculum And Material Development_by Dra. Margaretah Kafudji, MA_Uncen_2013


PENGERTIAN SILABUS,  BEDA DENGAN KURIKULUM , KOMPONEN - KOMPONEN  SILABUS  SERTA  PERANANNYA DALAM  COURSE PLANNING/ DESIGNING   , PENGENALAN TERHADAP JENIS-JENIS SILABUS



A.   Definisi

1.  Definisi   Silabus :

“A syllabus is a more detailed and operational statement of teaching and learning element which translates the philosophy of the curriculum into a series of planned steps leading towards more narrowly  defined objectives at each at each level”.   (Dubin & Olshtain, 1986)


2.  Definisi  Kurikulum

“A curriculum contains a broad description of general goals by indicating an overall educational-cultural philosophy which applies across subjects together with a theoretical orientation to language and language learning with respect to the subject at hand. A curriculum is often reflective of  national and political trends as well “ (Dubin & Olshtain, 1986)

Sebagai pembanding lihat definisi-definisi lain kurikulum (Suparman dkk. 2001 Konsep Dasar Pengembangan Kurikulum: Buku Paket AA 2.12, hal. 3 dst.)



PRESENT   CURRICULUM MODEL ’  CBC’   AS  SAMPLE  (Agustine’s paper)                             

Pertanyaan pendahuluan:
Mengapa kurikulum dan silabus perlu dikembangkan?
Boyd (1984) menyimpulkan alasannya sbb.:
1. Merespons perkembangan IPTEK
2. Merespons perkembangan sosial di luar sistem pendidikan
3. Memenuhi kebutuhan siswa
4. Merespons kemajuan-kemajuan dalam pendidikan,
5. Merespons terhadap perubahan sistem pendidikan itu sendiri.



MORE DISCUSSIONS ON ’ PENGEMBANGAN KURIKULUM’  HERE!!!
(file: tambahan) 




MORE  DISCUSSIONS ON
‘PENGEMBANGAN KURIKULUM’


1.  Apa Pengembangan Kurikulum?

Pengembangan kurikulum (curriculum development)   bagian dari  studi kurikulum (curriculum studies) berkaitan dgn proses penyusunan   dan implementasi kurikulum yang dikembangkan tsb.
Pertanyaan-pertanyaan berkaitan dgn pengemb.kurik.:
a.     Siapa  yg terlibat dalam proses penyusunan kurik.?
b.     Langkah-langkah yg ditempuh  dlm pengemb. Kurik.?


2.   Mengapa kurikulum dan silabus perlu dikembangkan?

Boyd (1984) menyimpulkan alasannya sbb.:
1. Merespons perkembangan IPTEK
2. Merespons perkembangan sosial di luar sistem pendidikan
3. Memenuhi kebutuhan siswa
4. Merespons kemajuan-kemajuan dalam pendidikan,
5.Merespons terhadap perubahan sistem pendidikan itu sendiri.

3. Apa prinsip dan landasan pengembangan kurikulum

Prinsip-prinsip yg harus diperhatikan dlm pengemb.kurik. :
-         fleksibel
-         kontinuitas
-         efektivitas
-         efisiensi
-         prakstis

Landasan pengembangan kurik.: (Zais, 1976)

Landasan yang kuat bagi pengemb.kurik.adalah:
 Filsafat    social dan  budaya (termasuk pendidikan), teori belajar ( termasuk teori bahasa,  dan  teori belajar bahasa).




Konsep  pengembangan Kurikulum :  

1.   pengembangan proses kognitif
2.   kurikulum teknologi
3.   aktualisasi diri
4.   rekonstruksi social
5.   kurikulum rasionalisme akademik  (lebih dominan  saat ini)à memelihara dan mewariskan hasil-hasil budaya masa lalu.

Tiap jenis ini mempunyai asumsi dan pandangan yg berbeda  ttg konsep pendidikan,  siswa, materi pembelajaran, dan proses belajar mengajar.  (Suparman dkk., 2001 Konsep Dasar Pengembangan Kurikulum. Jakarta: PAU Dirjen DIKTI, DEPDIKNAS)

Tambahan penjelasan lih. Diktat Kurikulum dan Bahan Ajar, hal 1 – 5) sebagai review.






MEETING   3                                                                                                FEB  .......

Objective:  
Review  components  of  curriculum  and  explore   how the main components of the curriculum interrelated with each other 


Komponen  & Peranan Kurikulum  Dan  Silabus

Perhatikan  ‘the curriculum jigsaw’ di bawah ini. Lalu rumuskan komponen-komponen kurikulum  dan silabus, serta peranannya masing-masing dalam perencanaan program kursus.

Kurikulum :

  • Principles of learning (learning a language) , learning resources, assessment & evaluation schemes
  • Syllabus (the core)               

Silabus  :  (conventional)
  • Goals & objectives
  • Content of learning
  • General statement of method, assessment & evaluation

Silabus  ala  KBK:
  • Standar Kompentensi
  • Kompetensi dasar
  • Indikator
  • Materi pokok
  • Pengalaman belajar
  • Alokasi waktu
  • Sumber/Bahan/Alat
  • Penilaian                                 (  Review)

KERANGKA     TEORITIK  KURIKULUM BAHASA INGGRIS

Dalam memperbandingkan kurikukulum bahasa asing, khususnya bahasa Inggris secara teoretik, berbagai kerangka banyak diusulkan oleh para pakar di bidang pengembangan kurikulum dan pembelajaran bahasa asing (Krahnke, 1987; Olsthain, 1987; Brown; 1996; Richards dan Rogers, 2001). Kerangka yang digunakan dalam kajian teoritik terhadap kurikulum bahasa asing umumnya mencakup dua pertanyaan berikut: (1) Landasan Filsafat pendidikan apakah yang melandasai kurikulum bahasa asing: (2) Pendekatan (merujuk kepada teori bahasa dan teori belajar bahasa asing) apakah yang digunakan dalam pengembangan kurikulum bahasa asing; dan (3) Bagaimanakan pendekatan tersebut mewarnai pengembangan komponen-komponen kurilum, yakni tujuan, konten, proses dan evaluasi pembelajaran bahasa asing?
Secara skematik, kerangka yang diusulkan oleh Dubin dan Olsthain (1987) akan digunakan dalam kaji banding kurikulum ini   (Source:   Sundayana, ND)


Task :  

Dengan contoh di atas  cobalah mengkaji secara lengkap  kurikulum kita yang baru (KTSP/KBK) dengan menggunakan kerangka yang ditawarkan  di atas (3 pertanyaan).
(Classically discuss this.)


















MEETING ______                                                                ___March 20            
                                                               
Focus:  CURRICULUM/SYLLABUS    DESIGNING   STAGES              

Review:
Different types of syllabus presented earlier were mainly looked from the way their contents were organized (structural, notional/functional, situational,  skill-based,  task-based,  and content-based).

CURRICULUM  AND SYLLABUS  DESIGNING  
               Designing curriculum/syllabus is a  complex process. According to Dubin and Olshtain (1986), before setting out a new language program, there should be done a preparatory work in the form of information gathering.   Shortly you will explore 2 versions of  preparation  stages.

                                                     
A.  DUBIN & OLSHTAIN (1986) FACT-FINDING STAGE 

This fact – finding stage is crucial ( imperative prerequisite) in the  initiation of  a new program because  in this stage key questions relating to the program  are to be answered. Such questions are:

    • Who are the learners? 
    • Who are the teachers?
    • Why is the program necessary?
    • Where will the program be implemented?
    • How will it be implemented ?


To gather   information  as answers to above questions , investigations are to be done in these areas:


  1. Language Setting
  2. Patterns of language use in society
  3. Group and individual attitudes
  4. Political and National Context 
                                                                                                                           
( Dubin & Olshtain 1986: pp 5 - 19)

                                                      
               Diagram 1  The Fact-Finding stage  (Dubin & Olshtain 1986)

The  Societal factors    in  curriculum/syllabus designing gathered at the finding stage from the 4 areas:

  1. Language Setting:

  1. Patterns of Language Use in Society:

  1. Group and Individual Attitude towards Language:

  1. Political and National Context:

           (Read  from Dubin & Olshtain, pp  6 – 17)



Tahapan Perancangan Program Bahasa   Dubin &Olshtain (1986)

      Tahapan ini dimulai dengan ’fact finding stage’ (termasuk defining context & articulating beliefs)  yang tujuannya sebenarnya  mengumpulkan data tentang faktor-faktor kemasyarakatan yang diperlukan  untuk   merumuskan (1) ’Needs’  (Needs Assessment).  Begitu ’Needs’  (profile kebutuhan pembelajar)   dirumuskan, maka langkah berikutnya  seperti tergambar dalam figure 1 di bawah ini  adalah (2) ’formulating  goals and objectives’ (menuliskan tujuan umum dan tujuan khusus). Berdasarkan tujuan-tujuan tsb.disusunlah (3) bahan ajar (developing materials)  diikuti (4) pembuatan prosedur dan alat evaluasi (designing an assessment plan). 


B. FRAMEWORK FOR COURSE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS (Graves 2000)

Graves (2000)  proposed  the framework  to follow. This includes:
  • Needs  Assessment
  • Determining Goals and Objectives
  • Conceptualizing  content
  • Selecting and developing materials and activities
  • Organizing   content and activities
  • Evaluating
  • Considering of Resources and Constraints  .


Menurut Kathlene Graves (2000) terdapat beberapa  tahapan dalam penyusunan program  seperti digambarkan di bawah ini.


                                                               Assessing needs

                         Conceptualizing                                        formulating goals
                         Content                                                      and objectives
                                                      COURSE DESIGN
 

                          Organizing                                               developing                        
                          the course                                                materials
                                                       designing an
                                                       assessment plan
                 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                      defining the context                                articulating beliefs




            PS:   arah panah tidak selamanya menunjukkan  arah proses
Figure 1 : A framework of Course Development Processes (from Graves,  2000)

A.   NEEDS ASSESSMENT  BY TEACHERS

What are my students’ needs?  How can I asses them so that I can address them?

Needs assessment involves finding out what the learners know and can do   and what  they need to learn or do  so   the course can bridge the gap (or some part  of it).

There are 2 types of needs:   objective and subjective needs (Richterich 1980). 

Objective needs ’ derivable from different kinds of factual information about learners, their use of language in real-life communication situations as well as their current language proficiency and language difficulties ’      and

Subjective  needs  as ’cognitive and affective needs  of the learner in the learning situation,  derivable from information about affective and cognitive factors such  as  personality, confidence, attitudes, learners’ wants and expectations  with  regard to the learning of English and their cognitive style   and learning strategies.


Questions related to Needs Assessment :

  1. What kinds of information  are needed  in assessing  students needs?   
Students’ background- country and culture,  education, family, profession, age, language spoken, and  so on ;  SS’ ability in speaking, understanding, reading, and writing English;  SS’ needs in terms of  how they will use or deal with English  outside of classroom.
SS’ attitudes toward Language & culture, towards learning, and towards themselves as learners;  their expectations of themselves and of the course ;  SS underlying purposes—or lack thereof—in studying English; and students’ preferences  with respect to how they will learn .       

  1. Who provides information about   needs  and who determines the needs? 

    The SS themselves, others connected to the course
    (Ts, donors, parents, administration, and
    employers; or future professors/lecturers) 

  1. When does one conduct  a needs assessment ?

Needs assessment can be done at various stage (stage 1 planning stage,   stage 2 teaching stage, or  stage 3 re-planning stage)

  1. How does one conduct a needs assessment?

Questionnaire, interview, test, observation (participation)

        Ps:  Target needs & Learning needs (Hutchinson & Waters 1987)

TAHAPAN PERANCANGAN PROGRAM BAHASA   


Fokus      :  Formulating Goals


R E V I E W

Questions  about  Goals & Objectives, Conceptualizing Content

1.    What  is (are) the purpose(s)  of setting Goals and Objectives  for a course?

Provides sense of direction and  a coherent  (logical)    framework for the teacher in planning her/his course, provide a framework for evaluation …

2.    How do teachers  determine  Goals and Objectives  of a course?

To formulate goals, ask ‘what are the purposes  and intended outcomes of the course?  Goals & objectives are going to be influenced by analysis of SS needs, policies of the institution, and the way T conceptualizes content.
(- thinking about what you want SS to learn in the course,  given who they are, their needs, and the purpose of the  course; - Making decisions about  what to include  and to emphasize and what to drop; - organizing the content in a way  that will help  you to see the relationship among various elements so that you can make  decisions about objectives, materials, sequence and evaluation.) 
For more information on this see Graves (2000) pp  37-48)
======================================

Goals are the main purposes and intended outcomes of your course.

Using the analogy of journey,  GOAL  is  the destination , the journey is the course.   The OBJECTIVES are different points we  you pass through on the journey to the destination.

Goals are general statements but  they are not vague.
Compare “Students will improve their writing”   and “ By the end of the course students will have  become more aware of  their writing in general  and be able to identify  specific area in   students will improve their reading which improvement is needed”, though general, is not vague.   …

A goal states an aim that the course will explicitly address in some way (apa yg tertulis dlm goal haruslah sesuatu yg akan benar-benar dilakukan/menjadi focus perhatian dlm kursus…  bukan sekedar  slogan belaka!)

Also, goals are future oriented.  Following  Brown (1995), Goals are “ what students should be able to do when they leave the program” Other example is  “By the end of the course students will have  developed the ability to  use the computer for a variety of purposes.”
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~






G O A L S       &     O B J E C T I V E S

WHAT ARE GOALS   AND OBJECTIVES?    

1. GOALS  address  a more general, societal, community, or  institutional concerns. OBJECTIVES are specific outcomes  or products of courses which are outlined in the syllabus.  (Dubin & Olshtain, 1986)


2) GOALS are general statements concerning desirable and attainable program purposes and aims based on perceived  language and situation needs.  OBJECTIVES  are specific statements that  describe the particular knowledge, behaviours, and/or skills that the learner will be expected to know or  perform at the end of  a course or program. (Brown, 1995)


FRAMEWORKS FOR FORMULATING GOALS  &  OBJECTIVES

*   Various frameworks are used to formulate goals, e.g.  Stern (1992) proposes 4 types of goals (proficiency goals, cognitive goals, affective goals, and transfer goals) . More frameworks are to be explored later.


A.    FRAMEWORKS FOR GOALS FORMULATION


1.    Stern (1992)  proposes 4 types of goals  for language learners.
·       Proficiency goal : includes general competency, mastery of the 4 skills, or mastery  of specific language behavior
·       Cognitive goal : mastery of linguistic knowledge and mastery of cultural knowledge
·       Affective goal: achieving positive attitudes and feeling about the target language, achieving confidence  in using the target language ,and  confidence in oneself as a learner
·       Transfer goallearning how to learn  in order to be able to transfer this ability for other/future learning task

For examples,    refer to Graves (2000: pp 81)
2.    Kathleen Graves (2000) lists several frameworks for formulating goals .

a.        KASA  (Knowledge, awareness, skills, and attitude)
-         K : what SS will know and understand;  knowledge about language and culture and society  
-         A: what SS need to be aware of when learning a language;  self knowledge, understanding of how language works, an understanding of others’ use of language…
-         S : what SS can do with the language
-         A:  affective  and value-based  dimension of learning – SS feelings towards themselves, toward others, and toward the target language and culture

Small group work:

PRACTICE    using the KASA framework to write goals   for an imaginary language program.
-------------------------------------------------------
b.       A TASK
c.        (Stern’s)
d.       Other   (Refer to Graves’ pp 78-87)
==============================================  














                                                                March 22, 2012

B.  Frameworks For Formulating  Objectives

*   Setting objectives (Nunan 1988) in order word is stating  or formulating content and activities. How one conceptualizes and  states  objectives depends on how s/he conceptualizes the content. (See p. 182)
*    
Focus :  
1. More on writing Goals using proposed framework
2. Introduction to writing objectives for given goals   

Review:      On Stern’s framework  (comment on students’ work)
For more  practice  on using framework, let SS try   the ‘A TASK / KASA’.
Once you learned how to write goals using various framework, now is the time for breaking down the goals into  objectives.  What to follow are  tips for writing objectives.

Reminder about  Goals:
1.     Goals are general statements of the program’s purpose.
2.     Goals should usually focus on what the program hopes to accomplish in the future, and particularly on what students should be able to do when they leave the program.
3.      Goals can serve as one basis for developing more precise and observable    objectives.
4.     Goals should never be viewed as permanent, that is, they should never become set in cement.

Objectives (instructional) are defined as  specific statements that describe the particular knowledge , behaviours, and /or  skills that learner will be expected to  know or perform at the end of a course or program.

Components of objectives: (Mager 1962) suggested the following components:

Performance  :   what the learners will be able to do
Condition       :   circumstances in which the learners will be able to
                           perfom
Criterion         :  the degree to which  they are able to do
                            something

Brown (1995)   Adds:     Subject (Who will be able to  do something; and measure (how performance will be observed).    E.g.:   Students at Guangzou English centre
                                                   S
will be able to write missing elements on the appropriate
                                     P                                              Cdt
lines in a graph, chart, diagram from information provi-ded in  a 600-word  11th grade reading level general science passage .  (see  p.86)

Subject         :   Students at  Guangzou English centre
Performance :   write missing elements… in a  graph, chart,  etc.
Condition     :   the appropriate lines …600 word 11th grade…
                         general science passage
Measure       :   to write the correct words (observable part  of the
                         objective)
Criterion       :   the criterion is 100% (all missing elements)

( Unsur ‘measure’  dan  ‘criterion’   harus diinfer/ simpulkan / tdk tersurat di sini)

Practice analyzing objectives on p 91.

Pair Work:  Write your own  objectives based on the goals  you drafted previously.




Meeting   12 April 2011                                                                                                                         

Objectives:   More on   Matching Goals and  Objectives


Review
Ask SS to prepare their  draft  of goals and objectives. 
(from mid term exam)  and discuss.

Use alternative source for writing goals and objectives  following Bloom’s taxonomy of  instructional objectives.

Domain Tujuan Instruksional (kognitif) menurut  Bloom

Terdapat 6 kategori tujuan kognitif menurutnya  mulai dari kompetensi ketrampilan intelektual yang  sederhana (tingkat pengetahuan) sampai dengan  yang paling kompleks yaitu tingkat evaluasi:
  1. Pengetahuan

  1. Pemahaman

  1. Penerapan

  1. Analisis

  1. Sintesis

  1. Evaluasi

Contoh-contoh kata kerja operasional sesuai tingkat kompetensi intelektualnya  (Buku 1.7 Bahan Pekerti, Buku KTSP, 140-141)




Group Task :

Gunakan taxonomi Bloom untuk berlatih merumuskan berbagai tujuan instruksional (6 level) untuk suatu program pembelajaran tertentu.

Kelompok sasaran:
a.           Putra-putri Papua lulusan S1 dari berbagai bidang ilmu yang mempersiapkan diri agar dapat lulus seleksi beasiswa belajar ke LN
b.           Siswa/I SMU yang mempersiapkan diri untuk seleksi …





Meeting 04                                                                 February …..

Objective:            Introducing Types of syllabus


JENIS-JENIS SILABUS PENGAJARAN BAHASA YANG ADA

Karl Krahnke  merumuskan 6 jenis:
1.   Structural syllabus                                    5.  Task-based syllabus            
1.     Notional/functional syllabus                       6.  Content-based syllabus                   
2.     Situational syllabus
3.     Skill-based syllabus      


Bandingkan  dengan  Dubin dan Olshtain  (1986) membedakan 4 jenis:
1.     Structural-grammatical syllabus
2.     Semantico-notional syllabus
3.     Functional syllabus
4.     Situational syllabus

Yalden membedakan 5 jenis:
1.     Functional syllabus
2.     Negotiated syllabus
3.     Natural syllabus
4.     Subject-matter syllabus
5.     Task-based syllabus

Berikut ini adalah ringkasan rumusan jenis-jenis silabus, kelebihan dan kekurangan masing-masing jenis menurut Krahnke.
Jenis-jenis silabus berikut dibedakan menurut  tekanan baik terhadap ‘form’ maupun ‘language use’ (meaning). Oleh karenanya  terlihat   letak masing-masing sepanjang kontinuum dlm fig.2.1. (Continuum of Sillabi)  (p. 12). Nampak Structural paling kiri; diikuti notional/functional;  lalu situational; kemudian oleh skill-based; setelah itu task-based; dan di akhiri yang paling kanan content-based.







STRUCTURAL SYLLABI

A collection of the forms and structures, usually grammatical of the language being taught.
( forms à grammatical, phonological ,morphological…
Structuresà parts of speech, types of sentences, tenses, …)

It is the most common syllabus type in the language teaching world.

Advantages (Reasons) :

1.     Structure or grammar is the most general component of communicative competence.   A given structure can be used for a variety of functions, situations, and meanings. (form is the most generalized aspect of language ...)
2.     Simple familiarity   - grammar is commonly known.
3.     Its content is easily described.
4.     Structural knowledge is the most measurable for the components of communicative competence.
5.     Although structural knowledge does not seem directly to be used by learners, evidences show that it can delay early  Fossilisation or cessasion of learning.
6.     Structure knowledge can be as monitor in a limited but well defined role in language use.
7.     Instruction in language structure provides basis to teachers to provide learners with feedback on the accuracy of learning/production.
8.     It is free from value and cultural biases.
                                                                                   
Disadvantages:
Weaknesses of the syllabus concerning usability, applicability, and transferability.
(Meskipun dapat diajarkan  dan dipelajari, studi-studi dalam bah. Pertama menunjukkan tidak ada hubungan signifikan/bisa terukur  antara pengajaran  structure dan kemampuan menulis dalam bahasa pertama  , sebagimana dilaporkan Hartwell, 1985.  
1.     Dengan kata lain pengajaran structure tidak  secara otomatis dapat mempengaruhi tingkah berbahasa secara baik. (Lih. Studi Ellis, 1986).
2.     Pengajaran berbasis ‘structure’ dapat ‘mengelabui’ (menyesatkan) pembelajar dengan membuat kesan seolah-olah mempelajari satu bahasa cukup dengan mempelajari ’fakta-fakta’ dan ’informasi’ tentang bahasa itu saja.
3.     Akibat adanya ‘sequencing’ atau ‘grading’ tadi, silabus ini sangat kaku, tidak memberi kesempatan siswa menghasilkan struktur yang belum pernah diajarkan.


NOTIONAL/FUNCTIONAL SYLLABI

A collection of the functions that are performed when language is used, or the notions that language is used to express.  (functions à communicative acts /speech acts
            Notions à meaning/semantico-grammatical  )

(Examples of ‘function’ ?  describing persons, telling time,   making request, etc.    of ‘notion’ à people , quantity,  time, space, motion,  etc.)

Advantages:
1.     Including how language is used in teaching syllabus potentially increases the usefulness of language instruction  (It includes information about language use that the structural does not).
2.     Common sense says the more specific instruction is, the more useful it will be.   Because of  accurate and adequate analysis of the types of  discourse the learner will need to engage in. ( success is possible because of the intrinsic relationship between form &  function on which Notional/functional syllabi are based.)

Disadvantages:
1.     Notional/functional syllabi remain simple series of isolated form-function pairings if not being synthesized into discourse.
2.     Because instruction is tied to specifics of the use, the instruction is less generalized than  structural  content.
3.     Limited to short utterances or exchanges involving the functions in question.
4.     It can become primarily a vehicle for teaching what are called ‘routines’ and ‘patterns’  in Second Language Acquisition.








SITUATIONAL  SYLLABI

Collection of real or imaginary situations in which language occurs or is used. (not based on grammatical items, vocabulary topics  but real  situations)

Situations are presented in the form of dialogues  and role plays   written or real ones .

Advantage:

Can lead more directly than others to learners’ ability to communicate in specific settings. Situations provide context of discourse in which form and function coincide.

Disadvantages:
1.     Focus on specific language use settings can limit the creativity of the learners because they are trained to  the language use that are predetermined and artificial situation. They will not be able to transfer their ability to other language use/situation.
2.     It is really hard to create  authentic language for instructional purposes.
3.     A reliance on situational setting can cause problem where the learners or instructional setting do not want  cultural values to accompany the language (Cultural bias).
4.     Situational syllabi (as with other types of  syllabi), presents  sequencing problems.(can sequence the situations, but not the language …)

4.  SKILL-BASED SYLLABI  ( KBK/KTSP  is included)

 A collection of specific abilities that may play a part in using language.  (Situational  groups functions together into specific settings of language  use, skill-based groups linguistic competencies  such as pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, sociolinguistic, and discourse)  together  into generalized types behaviours such as listening for spoken language for the main idea, writing well-formed paragraphs, giving effective oral presentations, taking language tests,  reading texts for main ideas and supporting detail, and so on(p. 11).

The primary purpose is to learn specific language skills  and to develop more general competence in the language.
Advantages:

Most useful for learners  who need to master specific types of language uses either exclusively or as a part of  broader competency .
Relevance to student-felt needs or wants is an advantage of this type of syllabus.

Negative characteristics:

The drawback of this type of syllabus remains potential  not absolute  .   The question is still on   the relationship of focusing on certain  language skill/ competencies  can actually   lead  to mastering of a greater  general proficiency.

5.  TASK BASED (not organized based on linguistic features)

·        A collection of complex and purposeful tasks that SS need to perform with the language they are learning (language learning is subordinate to task performance)  e.g. applying for a job, getting house information, etc.

Advantages: 
·        sangat pontensial, berdaya guna dan dapat diaplikasikan secara luas untuk siapa saja, transferability-nya sangat tinggi
·        ‘Task completion’   sama pentingnya dengan ‘language learning’. Pembelajaran bahasa model ini dapat membantu secara langsung pembelajaran mata ajaran/ilmu lainnya
·        Sangat efektif utk melibatkan siswa dlm kegiatan2 luar sekolah yg serupa (seminar, pidato, nyanyi, debate,dll)

Disadvantages:
·        Bermasalah dgn kesiapan/kemampuan guru, siswa maupun konteks pengajarannya. Butuh kreatifitas dan inisiatif guru yg sangat tinggi
·        Butuh sumber belajar yg bervariasi di luar buku teks dan bahan2 yg biasa terdapat di kelas
·        Challenging  dan kurang popular di kalangan siswa yg tidak terbiasa/yg inginnya  belajar bahasa saja!
·        Sangat individualistis/group centred
·        Evaluasi menjadi agak sulit krn tidak bisa diuji  dgn test yg bersifat ‘discrete’ / tidak cocok bagi lingkungan pendidikan yg membutuhkan laporan perkembangan penguasaan siswa seperti di Indonesia!
6.  CONTENT BASED (not based on linguistic features)
·        Sesungguhnya bukan silabus pengajaran  bahasa krn  pengajaran  dilakukan untuk mengajar mata pelajaran lain sambil belajar bahasa sebagai bahasa pengantar (language of instruction)-nya. Pengajaran bahasa mengikuti pengajaran ‘content’ .
·        Focus pada ‘informasi’(ilmu-nya)  berbeda dari ‘task based’ yg berfokus pada proses2 komunikasi dan kognitif
·        Advantages: memungkinkan pembelajarnya mempelajari ‘subject matter’ dan ‘bahasa’ secara bersamaan (simultaneously).  Bahasa dipelajari dlm konteks ‘language use’. ‘perfect match’ antara apa yang dibutuhkan pembelajar (need for learning ) dgn  apa yg diajarkan. Mendorong siswa yang malas belajar ‘bahasa’ untuk belajar tanpa sadar bahwa ia sedang belajar bahasa.
·        Disadvantage:  dapat mengarah ke fosilisasi atau terlalu tergantung pada ‘communication strategies’. Sering tidak cocok bagi pembelajar pemula dengan kemampuan  yg masih sangat terbatas.


Task:   Reflect back to your courses at Prodi BE. What types of syllabi  are they  written/presented in?
SYLLABUS DESIGNING
(CONCEPTUALIZING CONTENT )    

Once you have collected information about WHO the learners are,  their NEEDS , and the PURPOSES (aims/goals)  of the course are,   you should now  think about:

-         what you want your students to learn in the course;
-         making decisions about  what to include  and emphasize, what to drop/leave out;
-         organizing the content in a way that  will help you see the relationship among various elements  so that you can make decisions about objectives, materials, sequence and evaluation.

As a  result of this thinking process, you come up with  a kind of syllabus that   defines (delineates) what to teach in the course.
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What is actually  being done in the stage of  course development?

T figures  out which aspects of language and language learning she will include, emphasize, and integrate in the course and which type of syllabus to use (structural grid? communicative approach/functional-notional grid ? skill-based approach grid/competency-based? Task-based grid,  Content-based grid, etc. …)












































The Project

Prepare a  Course Design Document ( simpler version) for  the course you have been writing in groups/ or start a new one of your own. Use the model provided by the lecturer,  to write up your project.

COURSE DESIGN DOCUMENT:
(Framework pengembangan program)
Dlm dokumen ini terdapat:

1.  Background
2.  Course Aims & Objectives
3.  Orientation & Needs analysis
4.  Teaching Approach Principles
5.  Evaluation & Assessment
6.  Course Components
7.  Unit  of   Work &   Scheme  of  Work (syllabus  matrix  for 4 weeks.)
8.  Appendices



PROCEDURE:  

o Identify your learners and write course goals and objectives for these learners of yours. (already done!)

o Develop a simple syllabus consisting of  4 weeks . Decide  the number of units to have and  the content of each unit, and how the order /sequence of the materials is .  Then provide sample   of  materials to be utilized (for one or two meetings only) . CONSULT ME ANYTIME  . 
o Use the course framework   provided  by the lecturer (See model  above!).
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INSERT:    Materials  Development   (See Power point Presentation)

What Are The Bases For Developing A Curriculum? 
(konsep pengembangan kurikulum yg dikenal)


1.     Tiap konsep pengemb. Kurik. didasarkan pada aliran pendidikan yang berbeda yg mempunyai asumsi dan pandangan yg berbeda ttg konsep pendidikan, 


What are factors teachers consider in  selecting and developing materials and activities?                                                                

Choosing materials to use, activities for SS to do, and techniques to employ  are the core activities for Teachers.   Choosing material covers developing new materials,  collecting  variety of materials, or adapting existing materials.  The most important factors to consider are  effectiveness of the materials  in achieving the purpose of the course and their appropriateness for  students and teachers.

Organization of Content and Activities : sequencing  materials in a lesson  and overall course (the issues of building  and recycling)

3.    Evaluation

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